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From The Parson's Prologue, lines 61-74:
The Host aks the Parson to tell his tale
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From The Canterbury Tales:
The Parson's Tale
Paragraph 1-3
About penitence

Heere bigynneth the Persouns Tale.

§ 1        Oure sweete lord God of hevene, that no man wole perisse, but wole that we comen alle to the knoweleche of hym, and to the blisful lif that is perdurable, amonesteth us by the prophete Jeremie, that seith in thys wyse: "stondeth upon the weyes, and seeth and axeth of olde pathes (that is to seyn, of olde sentences) which is the goode wey. And walketh in that wey, and ye shal fynde refresshynge for youre soules, etc." Manye been the weyes espirituels that leden folk to oure lord Jhesu Crist, and to the regne of glorie. Of whiche weyes, ther is a ful noble wey and ful covenable, which may nat fayle to man ne to womman that thurgh synne hath mysgoon fro the righte wey of Jerusalem celestial; and this wey is cleped penitence, of which man sholde gladly herknen and enquere with his herte, to wyten what is penitence, and whennes it is cleped penitence, and in how manye maners been the acciouns or werkynges of penitence, and how manye speces ther been of penitence, and whiche thynges apertenen and bihoven to penitence, and whiche thynges destourben penitence. § 1        Our sweet lord God of heaven, who wants no man to perish, but wants that we all come to the knowledge of him and to the blissful life that is eternal, admonishes us by the prophet Jeremiah, who says in this way: "stand upon the ways, and see and ask of old paths (that is to say, of old opinions) which is the good way, and walk in that way, and you shall find refreshment for your souls, etc." Many are the spiritual ways that lead people to our lord Jesus Christ and to the reign of glory. Of which ways there is a very noble and a very suitable way, which can not fail to man nor to woman who through sin has deviated from the right way to Jerusalem celestial; and this way is called Penitence, of which man should gladly listen and enquire with all his heart to know what is Penitence, and why it is called Penitence, and in how many manners are the actions or workings of Penitence, and how many species there are of Penitence, and which things pertain and are suitable to Penitence, and which things hinder Penitence.
§ 2        Seint Ambrose seith that penitence is the pleynynge of man for the gilt that he hath doon, and namoore to do any thyng for which hym oghte to pleyne. And som doctour seith. "penitence is the waymentynge of man that sorweth for his synne, and pyneth hymself for he hath mysdoon." Penitence, with certeyne circumstances, is verray repentance of a man that halt hymself in sorwe and oother peyne for his giltes. And for he shal be verray penitent, he shal first biwaylen the synnes that he hath doon, and stidefastly purposen in his herte to have shrift of mouthe, and to doon satisfaccioun, and nevere to doon thyng for which hym oghte moore to biwayle or to compleyne, and to continue in goode werkes, or elles his repentance may nat availle. For, as seith Seint Ysidre, "he is a japere and a gabbere, and no verray repentant, that eftsoone dooth thyng for which hym oghte repente." Wepynge, and nat for to stynte to do synne, may nat avayle. But nathelees, men shal hope that every tyme that man falleth, be it never so ofte, that he may arise thurgh penitence, if he have grace; but certeinly it is greet doute. For, as seith Seint Gregorie, "unnethe ariseth he out of his synne, that is charged with the charge of yvel usage." And therfore repentant folk, that stynte for to synne, and forlete synne er that synne forlete hem, hooly chirche holdeth hem siker of hir savacioun. And he that synneth and verraily repenteth hym in his laste, hooly chirche yet hopeth his savacioun, by the grete mercy of oure lord Jhesu Crist, for his repentaunce; but taak the siker wey. § 2        Saint Ambrose says that Penitence is the complaining of a man for the guilt that he has done, and no more to do anything for which he ought to complain. And a certain theologian says, "Penitence is the lamentation of man who sorrows for his sin and punishes himself because he has done wrong." Penitence, in specific circumstances, is true repentance of a man that holds himself in sorrow and other pain for his guilt. And because he must be truly penitent, he shall first bewail the sins that he has done, and steadfastly intend in his heart to have confession by mouth, and to do satisfaction, and never to do thing for which he ought any more to bewail or to complain, and to continue in good works, or else his repentance can not avail. For, as says Saint Isidore of Seville, "He is a joker and a foolish talker and no true repentant that once again does a thing for which he ought to repent." Weeping, and not because to stop doing sin, can not avail. But nonetheless, men should hope that every time that man falls, be it never so often, that he can arise through Penitence, if he have grace; but certainly it is great doubt. For, as says Saint Gregory, "Hardly arises out of his sin he, who is burdened with the burden of evil usage." And therefore repentant folk, who stop sinning and abandon sin ere sin abandons them, holy church holds them sure of their salvation. And he who sins and truly repents himself in his last hours, holy church yet hopes for his salvation, by the great mercy of our lord Jesus Christ, for his repentance; but take the sure way.
§ 3        And now, sith I have declared yow what thyng is penitence, now shul ye understonde that ther been three acciouns of penitence. The firste is that if a man be baptized after that he hath synned, Seint Augustyn seith, "but he be penytent for his olde synful lyf, he may nat bigynne the newe clene lif." For, certes, if he be baptized withouten penitence of his olde gilt, he receyveth the mark of baptesme, but nat the grace ne the remission of his synnes, til he have repentance verray. Another defaute is this, that men doon deedly synne after that they han receyved baptesme. The thridde defaute is that men fallen in venial synnes after hir baptesme, fro day to day. Therof seith Seint Augustyn that penitence of goode and humble folk is the penitence of every day. § 3        And now, since I have declared you what thing is Penitence, now shall you understand that there are three effects of Penitence. The first is that if a man be baptized after he has sinned. Saint Augustine says, "Unless he be penitent for his old sinful life, he may not begin the new clean life." For, certainly, if he be baptized without penitence of his old guilt, he receives the mark of baptism but not the grace nor the remission of his sins, until he has true repentance. Another fault is this: that men do deadly sin after they have received baptism. The third deficiency is that men fall into forgivable sins after their baptism day after day. Thereof says Saint Augustine that penitence of good and humble folk is the penitence of every day.

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From The Parson's Tale, paragraph 4-5:
Three kinds of penitence: 1. contrition, 2. confession, 3. satisfaction